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Implement Custom SSZ Marshal/Unmarshal for Prysm Eth2 Data Structures
As we reach production-readiness and now handle mainnet-sized amounts of validators in our testnet, it is critical for the foundations of our codebase to become more efficient and more secure. One of the key pillars of the eth2 protocol is having a standardized serialization specification for key data structures that are communicated as raw bytes over the wire when nodes communicate via p2p. This allows all nodes implemented in different languages, such as Prysm in Go, Lighthouse in Rust, and Teku in Java to broadcast blocks between each other, attestations, and all sorts of other important data structures for consensus and ensure data integrity.
Eth2 officially uses the Simple Serialize specification as the canonical way of serializing/deserializing data to bytes in the protocol. There are, at the time of writing, approximately 23 key data structures we care about serializing/deserializing in eth2 for consensus purposes outlined in the Ethereum 2.0 phase 0 beacon chain spec [here](https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/blob/dev/specs/phase0/beacon-chain.md#containers).
Go as a language unfortunately does not support generic types, making it really nearly impossible to implement a generic data serialization library without the use of the `reflect` [package](https://godoc.org/reflect). Additionally, using `reflect` is error prone, painful, hard to debug, and **extremely inefficient**. Currently, the Prysm project uses our own [go-ssz](https://github.com/prysmaticlabs/go-ssz) generic serialization library which is untenable for mainnet. It fails to pass fuzz tests, fails to handle proper edge cases, and is **unrealistic in terms of speed and memory usage for production**.
However, given we only care about serializing / deserializing a fixed set of data structures for consensus, we can actually create custom Serialize/Deserialize functions for the data structures used in eth2 according to the Simple Serialize (SSZ) rules found [here](https://github.com/ethereum/eth2.0-specs/blob/dev/ssz/simple-serialize.md).
As such, we're opening a bounty for a brave developer to create custom Serialize/Deserialize functions for the following 23 data structures in eth2. The goal of this issue entails successfully creating `Marshal` and `Unmarshal` functions for data structures in the list below, with the suffix being the type. For example, for `BeaconBlockBody`, the functions would have the signatures: `func MarshalBeaconBlockBody() (byte, error)`, and `func UnmarshalBeaconBlockBody(byte, *ethpb.BeaconBlockBody) error`. The full list of data structures we need are defined as protobuf objects in https://github.com/prysmaticlabs/ethereumapis:
The PR that resolves this bounty **should not use reflect** and should be as fast as possible while optimizing for memory allocations.
We are offering an extra $500 bounty to a great implementation.
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